Hypothyroidism causes a Mental retardation irreversible, when thyroid hormones are lacking, which are necessary for the development of the central nervous system. After birth, thanks to the introduction of the heel test in all newborns, it is possible to diagnose and treat with the necessary speed most cases of congenital hypothyroidism, even if they do not present symptoms.
The lack of happiness hormones in the last months of gestation and in the first days of life, it can lead to an incorrect development of the baby's brain. For this reason, all pregnant women should undergo regular check-ups to present normal thyroid hormone levels, which means having adequate iodine levels. We tell you how it is hyperthyroidism in newborn babies.
Thyroid hormones are not only necessary for the correct brain developmentThey are also essential for the functioning of certain organs and systems (metabolism, heart, digestive system, reproductive system), which are affected when you do not have adequate levels.
Currently, hypothyroidism is the thyroid dysfunction more common and affects 1-3 percent of newborns. And in addition, it is estimated that 5 percent of children have mild or subclinical hypothyroidism.
The close to 100 percent coverage of Neonatal Screening by means of the heel test is the main advance in this field, since it makes it possible for all children with this type of hypothyroidism to be diagnosed and treated after birth and with the speed necessary to avoid future neurodevelopmental problems.
The detection of congenital hypothyroidism through the measurement of TSH in the capillary blood of the newborn obtained in the heel test has given spectacular results in preventing the onset of the disease
Specifically, the detection of hypothyroidism in preterm newborns (gestation less than 32 weeks) is very important and sample extraction times must be adjusted so that the value of their result is optimal for the control and follow-up of these children. Furthermore, in recent years progress has been made in improving the detection of some false negative cases, such as twins or twins, thanks to the fact that the heel test is repeated after 15 days.
exist two distinct forms of hypothyroidism:
1. The congenital. Two distinctions can be made in them. Some have genetic origin and need treatment throughout their lives, and others, transient, in which the origin of the thyroid dysfunction may be due to the mother, either by suffering from certain thyroid pathologies, or by certain treatments. An excess or deficiency of iodine may be the cause. In these cases, treatment can be suspended once the correct thyroid function has recovered. The most affected population are the premature infants.
2. Those acquired. Its prevalence increases with age. Symptoms in this type depend on the degree of dysfunction, although the main ones are short stature, obesity, constipation, dry skin and drowsiness. In this group, the clearly pathological hypothyroid usually have an autoimmune origin, but not the subclinical ones, which have genetic origin in 29 percent of the cases.
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in childhood makes it possible to prevent future thyroid disorders in adulthood. In fact, more and more studies on thyroid pathology in adulthood originating in childhood are being published.
The diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism is not technically complicated, since the level of TSH is simply determined in a whole blood sample (heel test performed in Neonatal Screening). Nor is the study of thyroid dysfunction by the biochemistry lab. What if it presents more complications is to know the cause (the etiology) that originates this dysfunction. In this sense, it would be very useful to know which genes are responsible for many of these thyroid pathologies, both for diagnosis and treatment.
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